WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT STUBBORN MALARIA DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOMS & TREATMENT

WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT STUBBORN MALARIA DISEASE, CAUSES, SYMPTOMS & TREATMENT

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Malaria is a disease caused by a parasite, transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. Malaria produces recurrent attacks of chills and fever. Malaria kills an estimated 1 million people each year worldwide.

While the disease is uncommon in temperate climates, malaria is still prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries. World health officials are trying to reduce the incidence of malaria by distributing bed nets to help protect people from mosquito bites as they sleep. Scientists around the world are working to develop a vaccine to prevent malaria.

If you're traveling to locations where malaria is common, take preventive medicine before, during and after your trip. Many malaria parasites are now immune to the most common drugs used to treat the disease. Most people with genotype AA are mostly prone to malaria than any other type of genotypes
SYMPTOMS

A malaria infection is generally characterized by recurrent attacks with the following signs and symptoms:

Moderate to severe shaking chills
High fever
Profuse sweating as body temperature falls

Other signs and symptoms may include:

Headache
Vomiting
Diarrhea
Malaria signs and symptoms typically begin within a few weeks after being bitten by an infected mosquito. However, some types of malaria parasites can lie dormant in your body for months, or even years.

When to see a doctor

Talk to your doctor if you experience a high fever while living in or after traveling to a high-risk malaria region. The parasites that cause malaria can lie dormant in your body for months. If you have severe symptoms, seek emergency medical attention.

Talk to your doctor if you experience a high fever while living in or after traveling to a high-risk malaria region. The parasites that cause malaria can lie dormant in your body for months. If you have severe symptoms, seek emergency medical attention.

CAUSES

Malaria is caused by a type of microscopic parasite that's transmitted most commonly by mosquito bites (females anopheles mosquitoes) 


Uninfected mosquito. A mosquito becomes infected by feeding on a person who has malaria.
Transmission of parasite. If you're the next person this mosquito bites, it can transmit malaria parasites to you.
In the liver. The parasites then travel to your liver — where they can lie dormant for as long as a year.
Into the bloodstream. When the parasites mature, they leave the liver and infect your red blood cells. This is when people typically develop malaria symptoms.
On to the next person. If an uninfected mosquito bites you at this point in the cycle, it will become infected with your malaria parasites and can spread them to the next person it bites.

Other modes of transmission:

Because the parasites that cause malaria affect red blood cells, people can also catch malaria from exposures to infected blood, including:

From mother to unborn child
Through blood transfusions
By sharing needles used to inject drugs

You may also like to Read: TOP 5 HOME REMEDIES TO CURE HIGH FEVER

COMPLICATIONS

Malaria can be fatal, particularly the variety that's common in tropical parts of Africa. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that 90 percent of all malaria deaths occur in Africa — most commonly in children under the age of 5.

In most cases, malaria deaths are related to one or more of these serious complications:

Cerebral malaria. If parasite-filled blood cells block small blood vessels to your brain (cerebral malaria), swelling of your brain or brain damage may occur. Cerebral malaria may cause coma.

Breathing problems. Accumulated fluid in your lungs (pulmonary edema) can make it difficult to breathe.

Organ failure. Malaria can cause your kidneys or liver to fail, or your spleen to rupture. Any of these conditions can be life-threatening.
Severe anemia. Malaria damages red blood cells, which can result in severe anemia
.
Low blood sugar. Severe forms of malaria itself can cause low blood sugar, as can quinine — one of the most common medications used to combat malaria. Very low blood sugar can result in coma or death.
Malaria may recur

Some varieties of the malaria parasite, which typically cause milder forms of the disease, can persist for years and cause relapses.

TREATMENTS AND DRUGS

The types of drugs and the length of treatment will vary, depending on:

Which type of malaria parasite you have
The severity of your symptoms
Your age
Whether you're pregnant
Medications

The most common antimalarial drugs include:

Chloroquine (Aralen)
Quinine sulfate (Qualaquin)
Hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil)
Mefloquine
Arthemeter with lumenfenthrine
Combination of atovaquone and proguanil (Malarone)
The history of antimalarial medicine has been marked by a constant struggle between evolving drug-resistant parasites and the search for new drug formulations. In many parts of the world, for instance, resistance to chloroquine has rendered the drug ineffective.

LIFESTYLE AND HOME REMEDIES

If you're going to be traveling to a location where malaria is common, talk to your doctor a few months ahead of time about drugs you can take — before, during and after your trip — that can help protect you from malaria parasites.

In general, the drugs] taken to prevent malaria are the same drugs used to treat the disease. Your doctor needs to know where you'll be traveling so that he or she can prescribe the drug that will work best on the type of malaria parasite most commonly found in that region.

No vaccine yet

Scientists around the world are trying to develop a safe and effective vaccine for malaria. As of yet, however, there is still no malaria vaccine approved for human use.
Reducing exposure to mosquitoes

In countries where malaria is common, prevention also involves keeping mosquitoes away from humans. Strategies include:

Spraying your home. Treating your home's walls with insecticide can help kill adult mosquitoes that come inside.
Sleeping under a net. Bed nets, particularly those treated with insecticide, are especially recommended for pregnant women and young children.
Covering your skin. During active mosquito times, usually from dusk to dawn, wear pants and long-sleeved shirts.
Spraying clothing and skin. Sprays containing permethrin are safe to use on clothing, while sprays containing DEET can be used on skin.

@Clinicgists