Post Menopausal Bleeding, Causes, and How it Affects Women

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Menopause is usually diagnosed in women over 45 who have not had a period for more than a year. Any bleeding from the vagina after this time needs to be checked by a General practitioner. 

How is Post menopausal bleeding diagnosed? 

A specialist, who may be a nurse, will offer you tests to help find out what's causing the bleeding and plan any necessary treatment.

The tests may include:

  • a small device being placed in your vagina to scan for any problems (vaginal ultrasound scan)
  • an examination of your pelvis and vagina – a speculum (plastic device) may be inserted into your vagina to hold it open, so the inside of the vagina and the cervix can be seen
  • a thin, telescope-like camera being passed up your vagina, through the cervix and into your womb to look for any problems (a hysteroscopy) and to take a tissue sample (biopsy) for testing – under local or general anaesthetic
  • the specialist may press on your tummy and inside your vagina to check for lumps, tenderness or other abnormalities.

Causes of postmenopausal bleeding

There can be several causes of postmenopausal bleeding.

The most common causes are:

  • inflammation and thinning of the vaginal lining (atrophic vaginitis) or womb lining (endometrial atrophy) – caused by lower oestrogen levels
  • cervical or womb polyps – growths that are usually non-cancerous
  • a thickened womb lining (endometrial hyperplasia) – this can be caused by hormone replacement therapy (HRT), high levels of oestrogen or being overweight, and can lead to womb cancer
  • Less commonly, postmenopausal bleeding is caused by cancer, such as ovarian and womb cancer.

Treatment for postmenopausal bleeding

Treatment depends on what's causing your bleeding.

Cervical polyps : the polyps may need to be removed by a specialist

Endometrial atrophy: you may not need treatment, but may be offered oestrogen cream or pessaries

Endometrial hyperplasia: depending on the type of hyperplasia, you may be offered no treatment, hormone medicine (tablets or an intrauterine system, IUS) or a total hysterectomy (surgery to remove your uterus, cervix and ovaries)

Source: Nhs.uk

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